12 Principles of Animation

Ollie Johnston and Frank Thomas were the first to introduce the twelve principles of animation in their book of 1981 was, The Illusion of Life. They were a part of Disney and were related to an old group of Disney called “Nine Old Men” they were the main characters responsible for creating the style of Disney’s animation. The 12 principles we are going to learn about are now the base for all the artists to work for on animated video production. 

12 Principles of Animation
12 Principles of Animation

Now let’s learn about the 12 principles of animation and what they consist of:

1. Squash and Stretch

Squash and stretch are some of the most important fundamental principles among the 12 principles. When a ball hits a surface, the force in the ball squashes the ball and the ball appears to be flat on the surface, but the object has to keep its volume, which broadens its impact. This is known as squash and stretch.

This impact gives the animation a versatile life-like quality because even though it may not seem like it, squash and stretch are surrounding you. Every shape is mangled in some way when worked upon by an external power; it’s only harder to find, in actuality. Squash and stretch have a way of exaggerating and imitating actions so it appears to be more creative and funny.

2. Anticipation 

Let’s think that there is a ball in front of us which you are about to kick. What would you do first? Do you pause and evaluate how to kick the ball and then set your goal? Now that’s what is called anticipation.

Anticipation refers to the point where you prepare something before the main action. Now as we said above about the ball when the player would kick the ball would be known as action. When you are creating a comic effect it can be attained without preparation or anticipation when you have used it several times. Essentially all genuine movements to a more prominent or lesser degree contain readiness or anticipation – a broad movement with the quibble before a strike, squat before a leap, swinging your arm back before tossing a stone, and so forth.

3. Staging

When you are filming a scene, where do you keep your camera? Where do the actors stand on the stage? What are they supposed to do? All these are the questions and dissections which is called staging. Staging is one of the principles which are mostly missed. It coordinates the crowd’s attention toward the main components in a scene in a way that adequately propels the story.

4. Straight Ahead Action and Pose-to-Pose

There are two versions of drawing animation. Straight ahead action refers to the action where you draw every frame of action and then another one along the way. With each pose you draw the limits – that is, the start, 12 Principles of Animation, and end drawings of activity – at that point you go on to the center edge, and begin to fill in the casings in the middle.

Pose-to-pose offers you more authority over the action. This makes it easy for you to understand that where your character is going and where it would be in the beginning and end rather than worrying if the timing is right. By completing the important and main poses first it helps you acknowledge if there are many major mistakes in the early stages. But sometimes it’s too neat and perfect. 

Straight ahead activity is less arranged, and in this way more new and amazing. The issue with it is that it resembles running blindfolded… you can’t sort out where you should be at any one time.

5. Follow-Through and Overlapping Action

When a person who is moving, stops there might be some of the parts who’d be still moving in the same direction and this happens because of the reason of force of forwarding momentum. These objects can be related to body, hair, and jowls, clothing, etc. this where you will witness the follow-through and overlapping action. 12 Principles of Animation, The second element is like fat, hair, clothing which are following through on the primary element, and it’s called overlapping action.

6. Ease-In, Ease Out

At the point when you start your vehicle, you don’t move up to 60 mph immediately. It takes a short time to speed up and arrive at a consistent speed. Inactivity talk, we would get down on this at Ease. 

Similarly, on the off chance that your break, you’re not going to reach a full stop immediately. (Except if you collide with a tree or something.) 12 Principles of Animation, You step on the pedal and decelerate over a couple of moments until you are at a stop. Illustrators call this an Ease In. 

Cautiously controlling the changing paces of items makes an animation that has predominant trustworthiness.

7. Arcs 

Life does not move straight in lines and animation shouldn’t either. Humans mostly move in a circular motion which is called arcs. Arcs work around the trajectory that adds the dream of life to an enlivened item in real life 12 Principles of Animation. If you don’t have arcs your animation will be stiff and mechanical. The speed and timing of the arc are very important. On many occasions, the arc is so fast that it un-focus and it cannot be recognized. This is known as animation smear.

8. Secondary Action

Secondary actions are those actions that are used to support the main action which adds more measurements to character animation. They can give greater character and knowledge to what the character is doing or thinking.

9. Timing

Timing means that where you put every frame of action according to the timeline. Time or you can say the number of frames you use to show an activity or movement. Utilize fewer edges and your movement will be sharp and fast, utilize more edges and your movement will be smooth and moderate.

10. Exaggeration

Sometimes more is necessary. Exaggeration refers to the character’s traits and actions which are presented extremely or dramatically. This can include different face shapes or distortions, body types, and expressions, and also the movement of the character. Exaggeration means adding up to the character like its appeal which increases the storytelling. 

11. Solid Drawing

Solid drawing refers to the part where your animated forms are viewed as three-dimensional spaces. The character you are drawing should come across as clear and expressive. Try to focus on clear shapes, look after the center of gravity a weight these should be even in every aspect. Your poses should contain intentions, feelings of the character, thoughts, and wishes. 

12. Appeal 

Here we are not looking upon cover girls or girls. Every character should have an amount of great or less degree of appealing it doesn’t matter if they are heroes or villains or maybe mammoths or dinosaurs or even if it is an object. This alludes to their sort, nature, foundation, and conduct. Indeed, even villain-like characters will be alluring and may be loved by observers. Onlookers all the more effectively acknowledge and comprehend engaging characters, they show them compassion.

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